Enzymes are very important for a normal function of our bodies. They are biocatalyst that enhances the rate of the reactions that are going inside our bodies. In this article, we will name 10 enzymes that are crucial for our normal body function.
Amylase is an enzyme that helps with digestion of carbohydrates. It helps our body to break carbohydrates into glucose that we use as a source of energy. We can find amylase in our saliva or saliva of other mammals. Amylase starts to react as soon as we put the food in our mouth. By chewing, we mix the food with saliva and amylase that will help our body to break down carbohydrates faster.
Trypsin is an enzyme that helps our bodies to digest proteins. Trypsin hydrolyzes proteins, which in the end helps to break down proteins in the simpler amino acids. The place where Trypsin is formed is in the small intestine. Trypsin will cleave to the peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine.Trypsin is present in many biological processes in our bodies, but mainly in the protein digestion.
Lipase is yet another digestive enzyme. It has an essential role in the digestion of the food. Lipase function is to transport and process dietary lipids, for example, triglycerides, fats, and oils. It can be found in pretty much all living organisms. It can be found even in some certain viruses. Lipase is the main enzyme that helps with the breaking down fats in the human digestive system. It also converts triglyceride substrates that are found in ingested oils into monoglycerides and two fatty acids. There are many types of Lipase in nature and that is why it is not strange why Lipase has such a major role in our digestive system.
Oxidase is an enzyme that helps in the oxidation-reduction reaction, it works as a catalyzer, it is especially involved in reactions that have dioxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is very important for normal function of our bodies. It allows over bodies to reduce potentially dangerous chemicals in our bodies to the non-harmfull ones, such as water (H2O). In its reaction, Oxidase gives its own Oxide atoms to balance the reaction in our body. This is a metabolic enzyme that helps with metabolic processes inside our bodies.
Ligase is an enzyme that helps in catalyzation of the two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond. It usually works by accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on the on of the larger molecules, or in the enzyme catalyzation when linking together two compounds. Usually, Ligase reaction goes as following: Ab + C → A-C + b and sometimes it goes: Ab + cD → A-D + b+ c + d + e + f. The main function of the Ligase is to catalyze the reaction of the two joining molecules by creating a new chemical bond.
Kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. Name of this process is phosphorylation. In which the substrate will gain a phosphate group and the high-energy ATP molecule will donate a phosphate group. This reaction, in the end, produces phosphorylated substrate and ADP. Kinase is a very important enzyme for normal function of our bodies. Kinase is a part of the larger family, phosphatases, this group removes phosphates groups from the molecules in their reactions. Kinasis is very important in metabolism, protein regulation, cellular transport, secretory processes, cell signaling and many other processes inside our bodies.
Topoisomerase is an enzyme that is used in overwinding or underwinding of DNA. The problem with winding a DNA arises due to the nature of its double-helical structure (double-chain structure). When the DNA replicates and transcript itself, DNA becomes overwound ahead of a replication fork. If DNA would stay that way, that would, in the end, stop the ability of DNA or RNA polymerases involved in these processes to continue down a strand of DNA. Topoisomerase helps in the process to stop the DNA chains to overwound. Which, in the end, help in a normal replication of DNA and RNA.